STIGMATIZING ATTITUDES AND THE USE OF STIGMATIZING LANGUAGE TOWARDS MENTAL ILLNESS AMONG DOCTORS AND NURSES IN TURKEY
Introduction: It is common knowledge that individuals with mental illness face many negative consequences of stigmatization. They are also super sensitive to the attitudes of health professionals. This study aims to investigate the stigmatizing attitudes and language usage of mental health professionals and to compare them with non-mental health professionals.
Material and Methods: A total of 722 healthcare professionals were asked to complete the sociodemographic characteristics data form, the questionnaire including the list of stigmatizing words for mental illnesses, and the Attitudes Towards Mentally Ills Scale (ATMIS).
Results: Research shows that mental health professionals have less stigmatizing attitudes when compared to other healthcare professionals (p=.000). However, it is determined that there is no difference in terms of the number of stigmatizing words used by both groups, and the most frequently used psychiatric diagnostic expressions with stigmatizing purposes are personality disorders. The number of stigmatizing words used by physicians is more than nurses (p=.000). Mental healthcare professionals have more positive attitudes in both short-term and the long term relationship scale scores. Both groups show that the mean score is lower in long-term than in short-term relationships.
Conclusion: Working in the mental health field does not lead to a positive change in terms of language use in stigmatizing purposes and reducing stigmatizing attitudes in a long-term relationship with individuals with mental illness. It is recommended to increase the awareness of physicians about the use of stigmatizing language.
Link BG, Phelan JC. Conceptualizing stigma. Am Rev Sociol 2001;27(1):363–85. Doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.27.1.363
Cancro R, Meyerson AT. Prevention of disability and stigma related to schizophrenia. In Schizophrenia, WPA series evidence and experience in Psychiatry.Maj M, Sartorius N, editors. New York: John Wiley& Sons Ltd; 1999: 269-71.
Fung KMT, Tsang HWH, Corrigan PW. Self-stigma of people with schizophrenia as a predictor of their adherence to psychosocial treatment. Psychiatr Rehabil J.2008;32(2):95–104. doi: 10.2975/32.2.2008.95.104.
Rüsch N, Zlati A, Black G, Thornicroft G. Does the stigma of mental illness contribute to suicide? Br J Psychiatry. 2014;205(4):257-9. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.114.145755.
Ucok A. Why is the schizophrenic patient stigmatized? J Clin Psy. 2003;(Suppl. 1):3-8.
Yuksel EG, Taskın EO. The attitudes and knowledge of the physicians and the medical school students towards mental disorders in Turkey. Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2005;6(2):113-21.
Yildirim G, Ersan EE, Pinar SE, Kilic C. Assessment of health professionals' views and beliefs about mental illnesses: A survey from Turkey. Int J Soc Sci. 2016;5(5):55-62.
Ross CA, Goldner EM. Stigma, negative attitudes and discrimination towards mental illness within the nursing profession: a review of the literature. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2009;16(6):558-67. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2850.2009.01399.x.
Gunay S, Bekitkol T, Ekitli GB, Yildirim S. Determination of the mental disorder beliefs of students in a Nursing Faculty. J Psychiatr Nurs 2016;7(3):129-34. doi: 10.5505/phd.2016.43534
Knaak S, Mantler E, Szeto A. Mental illness-related stigma in healthcare Barriers to access and care and evidence-based solutions. Health Manage Forum. 2017;30(2)111-6. doi: 10.1177/0840470416679413.
Alpan A, Kocamanoglu E, Yuce F, Akcakmak G, Gunbal M, Asik E. et al. Students' attitudes against schizophrenia at Faculty of Health Sciences. Kırıkkale University Faculty of Medicine Journal. 2018;20(1):8-17. doi: 10.24938/kutfd.332740
Leucht S, Burkard T, Henderson J, Maj M, Sartorius N. Physical illness and schizophrenia: a review of the literature. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2007;116(5):317-33. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.2007.01095.x.
Laursen TM, Nordentoft M, Mortensen PB. Excess early mortality in schizophrenia. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 2014;10:425-48. doi: 10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032813-153657.
Ucok A. Other people stigmatize...But, what about us? Attitudes of mental health professionals towards patients with schizophrenia. Arch Neuropsychiatr.2007;44(1):108-16.
Bostanci N, Asti N. Nurses' attitudes toward persons with mental disorders. Dusunen Adam 2004;17(2):87-93.
Sercu C, Ayala RA, Bracke P. How does stigma influence mental health nursing identities? An ethnographic study of the meaning of stigma for nursing role identities in two Belgian Psychiatric Hospitals. Int J Nurs Stud. 2015;52(1):307-16. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2014.07.017.
Bilge A, Cam O. The fight against stigma toward mental illness. TAF Prev Med Bull. 2010;9(1):71-8.
Arı F, Oz F. Attitudes of doctors and nurses, working at primary health services, towards individuals with mental health problems. Journal of Hacettepe University School of Nursing. 2005;12(1):16-28.
Vistorte AOR, Ribeiro WS, Jaen D, Jorge MR, Evans-Lacko S, Mari JDJ. Stigmatizing attitudes of primary care professionals towards people with mental disorders: a systematic review. Int J Psychiatr Med. 2018;53(4):317-38. doi: 10.1177/0091217418778620.
Ozer U, Varlik C, Ceri V, Ince B, Delice MA. Change starts with us: stigmatizing attitudes toward mental illness and the use of stigmatizing language among mental health professionals. Dusunen Adam. 2017;30(3):224-32. doi: 10.5350/DAJPN2017300306
Szeto ACH, Luong D, Dobson KS. Does labeling matter? An examination of attitudes and perceptions of labels for mental disorders. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2013;48(4):659-71. doi: 10.1007/s00127-012-0532-7.
Lam DC, Poplavskaya EV, Salkovskis PM, Hogg LI, Panting H. An experimental investigation of the impact of personality disorder diagnosis on clinicians: can we see past the borderline? Behav Cogn Psychother. 2016;44(3):361-73. doi: 10.1017/S1352465815000351.
Taylor SM, Dear MJ. Scaling community attitudes toward the mentally ill. Schizophr Bull. 1981;7(2):225-40. doi: 10.1093/schbul/7.2.225.
Cohen JE. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. First ed., Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.1988
Ozyigit ES, Savas HA, Ersoy MA, Yuce S, Tutkun H, Sertbas G. Hemsirelerin ve hemsirelik ogrencilerinin sizofreniye iliskin tutumlari. New Symposium. 2004;42(3):105-12.
Kingdon D, Sharma T, Hart D. What attitudes do psychiatrists hold towards people with mental illness. B J Psych Bulletin. 2004;28(11):401-6.
Lauber C, Anthony M, Ajdacic-Gross V, Rossler W. What about psychiatrists' attitude to mentally ill people? Eur Psychiatry. 2004;19(7):423-7. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2004.06.019.
Alexander L, Link B. The impact of contact on stigmatizing attitudes toward people with mental illness. J Ment Health. 2003;12(3):271-89. doi: 10.1080/0963823031000118267.
Granados-Gamez G, Lopez Rodríguez MD, Corral Granados A, Marquez-Hernandez VV. Attitudes and beliefs of nursing students toward mental disorder: the significance of direct experience with patients. Perspect Psychiatr Care. 2017; 53(2):135–43. doi: 10.1111/ppc.12147.
Crips AH, Gelder MG, Rix S, Meltzer HI, Rowlands OJ. Stigmatization of people with mental illness. Br J Psychiatry. 2000;177(1):4-7. doi: 10.1192/bjp.177.1.4.
Ozden A, Essizoglu A. Attitudes of turkish nurses towards schizophrenic patients. Dusunen Adam. 2004;17(3):146-53.
Werner S. Public stigma in intellectual disability: do direct versus indirect questions make a difference? J Intellect Disabil Res. 2015; 59(10):958–69. doi: 10.1111/jir.12207.
Arabaci LB, Cam MO. The attitudes nurses working at psychiatric hospitals in Turkey have towards forensic psychiatric patients and the associated factors. [Article in Turkish]. Turk Psikiyatri Derg. 2013;24(4):253-9.
Loch AA, Guarniero FB, Lawson FL, Hengartner MP, Rössler W, Gattaz WF et al. Stigma toward schizophrenia: do all psychiatrists behave the same? Latent profile analysis of a national sample of psychiatrists in Brazil. BMC Psychiatry. 2013;13(1):92-102. doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-13-92.
Chen MD, Chang YC. Personnel attitudes toward people with mental illness at a psychiatric hospital in Taiwan. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2016;62(4):361-8. doi: 10.1177/0020764016634385.
Jensen ME, Pease EA, Lambert K, Hickman DR, Robinson O, McCoy KT et al. Championing person-first language: a call to psychiatric mental health nurses. J Am Psychiatr Nurses Assoc. 2013;19(3):146-51. doi: 10.1177/1078390313489729.
Cuttler C, Ryckman M. Don't call me delusional: Stigmatizing effects of noun labels on people with mental disorders. Stigma and Health. 2019;4(2):118-25. doi: 10.1037/sah0000132.
Sheehan L, Nieweglowski K, Corrigan P. The stigma of personality disorders. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2016;18(11):1-7. doi: 10.1007/s11920-015-0654-1.
Rusch N, Schiel S, Corrigan PW, Leihener F, Jacob GA, Olschewski M et al. Predictors of dropout from inpatient dialectical behavior therapy among women with borderline personality disorder. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2008;39(4):497-503. doi: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2007.11.006.
Demiroren M, Senol Y, Kosan AMA, Saka MC. Educational needs assessment of stigmatization towards mental illness in medical education: qualitative and quantitative approach. Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2015;16(1):22-9. doi: 10.5455/apd.45731.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2021 Seda Kirci Ercan, Dursun Hakan Delibas
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.